Public access to scientific findings: a mixed blessing
by Alan Cohen
The Washington Post is reporting that the Obama administration is ordering greater public access to publicly funded research. This sounds good, but what exactly does it mean, and why wasn’t it done already? In fact, most research funded by the US government through grants to independent researchers (e.g. such as me, at universities) is already required to be made available to the public within 12 months of publication. The same is true for health research here in Canada, via the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).
Here’s how the system works now: As a researcher, I want to publish my results. This helps other researchers (and the public) learn what I’ve done, and it helps my career. I do so by submitting an article to a peer-review journal, of which there are many. I make the choice based on how important I think my findings are (and thus how ambitious I can be in shooting for a top journal, which will be more widely read and look better on my CV). The journal may or may not accept my article, and will probably require extensive revisions. The process generally takes about 6 months from the initial submission, assuming the first journal accepts, and it requires a lot of time in terms of revising, formatting, submitting, proofreading, and so forth. This is excluding the time to prepare the original article.
Once my article is published, it is available online at the publisher’s website or in print at any library that subscribes to the journal. Most people now read online. Anyone can access the article’s abstract and some other data about it, but for most journals, only individuals affiliated with a subscribing university can access the full article. Anyone not affiliated can access for around $30, an exorbitant fee. Nearly all of the fees associated with publication are sustained by university library subscriptions. Publishers make enormous profits because they have a monopoly on each journal, and those who pay for the journals are not those who publish in them, removing the normal market forces from the system.
Some journals, however, are open-access, which means anyone anywhere can read the article online for free, but the researcher must generally pay a publication fee of $1000-2000. Most journals that are not open-access offer an option to publish articles as open-access, for a higher fee.
Since the public pays for research through government grants, the argument goes that the public should have access to the results. As a consequence, many funding agencies have started requiring that their grantees make their results public within a year of journal publication. This sounds great, and it is definitely an admirable goal, but the transition is difficult, as illustrated by my recent experience.
I had just had an article accepted in Mechanisms of Ageing and Devleopment (MAD), a good journal in my field and the best one for this particular article. It is a rather technical article unlikely to be of interest to people outside academia, but important as a base for my future research and to describe a method many others are likely to want to use. I had just become aware of CIHR’s new policy that the results had to be publicly available within 12 months, and I thought this was a good thing. So I started looking into what this meant for my upcoming publication.
MAD is owned by Elsevier, the largest academic publishing house. I started poking around their website, and I found that I could pay $3000 (from my grant money, not my pocket) to publish open access. It was not clear if I had the right to make my article public in some way without paying this. (It’s a lot of money, enough to support a summer research student who could complete a project and learn a lot, a much better use in this case than granting theoretic access to a public unlikely to read the article.) There was some information about different levels of access, “green,” “gold,” “white,” etc. It seemed that MAD was green, which meant that I was allowed to submit a non-formatted version of the article to a public archive after 12 months. However, another webpage said that Elsevier had no agreement with CIHR, which meant that I could not submit to an archive. It wasn’t clear.
So I wrote to both CIHR and Elsevier asking for clarifications. They both sent me links to various websites which were not very helpful or which I’d already seen. I finally talked by phone to someone at CIHR, who was very friendly and helpful but did not seem to know what to do. After repeated conversations with her, she suggested that I should try to negotiate the publication contract each time I published an article, an obvious non-starter since I have no leverage in such a negotiation, and since whatever journal functionaries will just want to get rid of my questions as quickly as possible.
Elsevier in fact responded in just this way. I was never able to get more out of them than an effective “just pay the $3000 and stop bothering us.” Eventually, I gave up and paid because I had little hope of finding something else out with more time, and I’d already put a lot of time into the question. But things won’t be any clearer next time around…
I strongly believe that all research findings should be publicly available, and that there should not be any private publishing houses such as Elsevier. Financing for publication should come from an international consortium of governments that agree to pay proportional to the amount their countries produce. It could even be that every researcher is required to pay open access fees for every article from grant money, and that these fees are slightly elevated in order to allow individuals without grant money to publish for free.
But we are a long way from this system. In the meantime, MAD was the journal I needed to publish my article in. Elsevier had a monopoly on MAD, and extorted $3000 from me (much more than the real publication cost, I’m sure). CIHR’s rules, implemented with good intentions but without the necessary agreements with publishers, meant that $3000 of their money (and mine) got wasted. And we are not, in practice, much closer to a true open-access world. In the meantime, I have one more expense and more administrative headaches that will slow down my scientific productivity…
One other quirk reported by the Washington Post: the Obama administration will require government researchers to publish their findings. This also sounds good, but is not workable in practice. Publishing takes an enormous amount of time and effort, and I publish perhaps one tenth of what I could or what I would like to based on time constraints. I have lots of old results sitting in folders that I don’t have time to write up. Forcing me to publish all my results (even the ones I deem less important) would slow down my productivity in generating the truly important results.
So, while well-intentioned, the new rules seem as likely to do harm as to do good….